Tremosine: Territory : Water and winds of the lake :

The water and winds of the lake


About six million years ago, when the slow movements of the European and African continents closed the Strait of Gibraltar, the Mediterranean Sea dried up. The river then running through the Garda valley carved a deep, narrow crevice on its way to the sea, which was much lower after the sea evaporated.

From 700,000 years ago to the present day, the Earth's climate has often changed, probably in response to variations in the planet's movements. Glaciers filled the Garda valley many times during the ice ages. They eroded and smoothed the rocks and as they melted they deposited the debris they carried along, thus forming moraines. At the end of the last ice age some 12,000 years ago, a lateral moraine blocked the course of the river Chiese (which had until then flowed through the Garda valley), diverting it to the west. The more massive terminal moraine arcs to the south closed the valley. This is how Lake Garda was formed. The lake water's volume is some 50 km3 with a retention time of 27 years. Therefore, the lake is always quite warm and would be even warmer were it not for the cold mountain streams flowing into it. The lake water is cooler than the air in summer and warmer in winter; it mitigates both the summer heat and the winter chill, making the climate on Lake Garda quite mild, almost Mediterranean-like.

The air temperature in the Park is not uniform, of course, given that the altitude varies from more or less 100m near the lake to the approximately 2000m of the highest peaks. Mountain breezes blow from high altitude towards the lake. They can reach quite strong speeds and create gusts that may be dangerous for boats but are appreciated by windsurf fans.

The lake has two prevailing winds: the Pelèr blows from north to south in the morning, when the mild lake air rises and draws air from the Sarca valley. The Ora comes from from the South in the afternoon until the evening and blows cooler air towards the mountains heated by the sun.



Associazione Pro-Loco - Piazza Marconi, 1 25010 Tremosine (Bs) - Lake Garda Italy - Tel +39 0365 953185 Fax +39 0365 918670 - P.I. 02091170981 -